Its constitution was approved by Francis Borgia, a component of the infamous family " Borgia ", also known as Borja / Borgia, Duke of Grandia, nephew of Pope Alexander VI and patron of Ignatius of Loyola. Francis Borgia was the main financier and architect of the gradual transformation of the Jesuits in the first order of monks from the characteristics specifically military within the Catholic Church. He was also a promoter of adoption of the Papal Bull "Regimini militantis" ( 27 September 1540 ), by the very close companion of the Borgia family, Alessandro Farnese, Pope Paul III, who first granted the official status of Jesuit order.
Ignatius of Loyola was noticed for the first time by the young Duke of Grandia already in 1529, when he was re-arrested by the Inquisition in relation to extreme practices of religious devotion. Borgia saw the potential in the devotion of a military character founded on extremism preached by Ignatius of Loyola, and his will to establish a military order of monks. It was the young Borgia, who saved the life of Ignatius Inquisition.
On the death of Ignatius in 1557, should have been Francis Borgia to secure the appointment of a second Superior General. However, his ambitions were thwarted in the first place the arch - enemy Giovanni Pietro Carafa, that Pope Paul IV (1555-1559). Carafa Pope had always been one of the biggest opponents of Pope Alexander VI Borgia and promptly named Diego Laynez (Jaime Lainez) as Superior General.
Pope Paul IV died in August of 1559 and he was succeeded by Giovanni Angelo de 'Medici (Pope Pius IV). In both cases, the Superior General of the Jesuits Diego Laynez aligned itself closely to the conduct of the pontiff, proving to be virtually untouchable.
However, when Pope Pius IV tortured and murdered Benedict Welcomed and other members of the papal families later in what was called a conspiracy against him is not successful, Cardinal Borgia acted and Pius IV was poisoned and killed December 9, 1565. A few days later, the Superior General Diego Laynez suffered the same fate and immediately after Cardinal Francis Borgia was unanimously elected as the third Superior General.
UNIQUE FEATURES OF THE JESUIT ORDER
Borgia strengthened the already remarkable powers of the Superior General of the Jesuits, making the power of the order higher than that of any other in the history of the Catholic Church.
Although in technical terms were to consider the monks, the Constitution of the Order was the only one of its kind as it exempted the priests of the order by the rule of enclosure. In contrast, the Jesuit monks were encouraged to act "in the world." Only the priests Dominicans, who at the time worked as the torturers at the head of the Inquisition of the Catholic Church, had previously been granted such liberties.
However, the Constitution Jesuit, from the beginning, went much further, as it allowed and even encouraged the priests not to wear the dress (the traditional dress of Monaco), so that it was easier for them to " merge" with the world.
Borgia is also assured a Papal Bull by Pope Paul III in 1545, which allowed the Jesuits to preach, hear confessions, dispense the sacraments and recite mass, without having to refer to a bishop - therefore rank effectively outside the control regional clergy.
In addition, Borgia further amended the Constitution of the Military Order of the Jesuits when he managed to allow the transfer of such a large amount of power in favor of the office of Superior General of the Jesuits, to be made according to the latter in terms of influence only to the Pope in according to the Constitution of the Order, beginning in 1565 (the one that remains in force even today), the Superior General can fulfill the priests and the new recruits from all their sins, even the sin of heresy, schism and falsification of the apostolic writings. In addition, the Superior General, the time of Borgia forward, was given the power "official", according to Papal Bull and standards contained therein, to annul sentences of excommunication, suspension or debarment, and also to fulfill priests Jesuits guilty of murder and bigamy.
But one of the most striking successes of the Superior General Borgia took place in the year of his death, when assured his order, under the pontificate of Pope Gregory XIII in 1572, the right of the Jesuits to conduct business in the commercial and banking - a right that had not been granted to any religious order of the Catholic Church since the time of the Knights Templar, four hundred years before.
In fact, these are precisely the rules contained in the Constitution of the Order of Jesuits, which led to the nickname given to the Superior General of Papa Nero.
JESUITS AND EDUCATION
Although since its origin the Military Order of the Jesuits has been designed to demonstrate its capability to conduct risky and dangerous missions of all kinds, assassination, propaganda, falsification of documents and theft, their primary mission was, and still remains, commitment oriented to defeat all the forces that were opposed and oppose the authority of the Roman Catholic Pope - in particular the Protestant movement.
Even during the sixteenth century, the Catholic Church undertook to obstruct and check out the free trade and access to education through the combination of pontifical right, political action, and also occasionally using force. On the contrary, those states that had rejected the supremacy of the Pope, like England and many parts of Germany, France, Eastern and Northern Europe , were free to pursue unhindered free trade and independent choices in the field of education.
Among the most important consequences of the Reformation, the most dangerous for the Catholic Church proved ( and still proves ) access to education. E' for this reason that the Jesuits , in such an early stage, they were forced to adopt a counter-position in education. Using the powers granted to them, quietly formed the Jesuits in the education sector a counter-movement in opposition to the Protestants, using the priceless advantage in regard to access to the secret archives of the Vatican. The Jesuits devoted themselves to manipulate every major source of science and philosophy of acting against the Protestant intellectuals, including the subversion of their secret societies.
The chances of recruitment and promotion of education represented a fringe benefit for the Jesuits, as granted them the ability to recruit subjects of great talent and made more welcome their services throughout the Catholic world. The Jesuits soon became known as the Order dedicated to excellence in education within the Catholic countries, a concept perverse considering that their raison d'être and their structure had been originally typical military.
JESUITS AND THE FIRST TRADE
Another area in which the Jesuits tried initially to compete with the Protestant states was that of the lucrative trade routes. Thanks to Pope Gregory XIII, the Jesuits were the only religious order which was granted authority to conduct commerce and banking.
The Jesuit Superior General Claudio Acquaviva (1581 - 1615) immediately took advantage of this possibility when in 1580 he ordered Father Vilela of the Society of Jesus (SJ) to buy the port of Nagasaki by a local warlord Japanese. The General Acquaviva subsequently sent Valignano (SJ ), so that would manage the new trade mission.
The Jesuits eagerly promoted the growth of its territorial possessions, the port of Nagasaki, which turned into one of the most profitable trading ports in the world. The Jesuit property of the port of Nagasaki gave the Company a monopoly in concrete reference to the possibility of taxing all imported products that made their entrance in Japan.
The Jesuits under Peter Claver (SJ) also proved to be an essential tool for the development of the slave trade from Africa to South America, to be used in the gold mines. They were about half a million slaves transported using vessels under the supervision of Peter Claver (SJ). Later, the Jesuits turned Claver by one of the Lords of the worst in the history of the slave trade in the patron saint of slaves, Colombian and African-Americans.
However, much of Spain as particularly Portugal were deeply annoyed by the increasing wealth and influence of the Jesuits, who sought to extract exorbitant profits from the slave trade and the monopolization of trade due to them.
In response to the attempt of the Portuguese, who were trying to limit the influence of the Jesuits in Japan arming their enemies, General Claudio Acquaviva formed an alliance with the Dutch (Protestants) in 1595, providing a series of privileges to their merchant ships and their trade. After the new alliance, the English parliament passed a document that granted the monopoly of the same agreement pirate of a commercial nature known as the East India Company, in 1600.
In 1602, General Claudio Acquaviva assured his support to the merchants of the Jesuit Order in order to obtain a formal agreement, to guarantee the possibility of acting in a monopoly for 21 years at the States General of the Netherlands in framework of the newly created Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie or VOC in Dutch, literally, "the Dutch East India Company ."
Using the exclusive competence of the Jesuits in the conduct banking transactions and trade, the Dutch East India Company was one the 'companies' most profitable in history thanks to the control it exercises on the trafficking of spices, slaves, drugs and their plantations. The Jesuits lost control only in 1773 on the occasion of the dissolution of their Order.
THE DISSOLUTION OF THE ORDER
Although the initial goal of the Jesuits, in the context of their involvement in the field of trade, was to harm and hamper business in the Protestant countries, were actually Catholic nations to be the biggest victims. The damage caused by the Jesuits, was added the growing danger due to the great skills of the Order in carrying out assassinations. Each time a new king or a new Queen was murdered in their custody, this contributed to shake the noble families of Europe.
But it was the absolute control of education and the repression of liberalism by the Jesuits to lead to their dissolution. While the Protestant nations made steady progress in the field of commerce, industry and education, the Catholic states were losing power. Spain, Portugal, the states of Italy and even France were in constant decline while England, Germany, Russia and other countries of Northern Europe grew in wealth and prestige.
In 1758 , the minister of Joseph I of Portugal ( 1750-1777 ), the Marquis of Pombal expelled the Jesuits from Portugal, and sent them en masse to Civitavecchia, as a "gift to the Pope." In 1764, King Louis XV of France also expelled the Jesuits.
Up to 1769, the movement oriented to the expulsion of the Jesuits grew up with such constancy that there was a real risk that even the properties of the Pope could be targeted. Pope Clement XIII then convoked a consistory, in order to dissolve the Jesuits, which included the development of a Papal Bull for a ruling in this regard. But on February 2, 1769, the night before the Bull who established the suppression of the Jesuits was promulgated, General Lorenzo Ricci did assassinate the Pope.
His successor, Pope Clement XIV, himself educated by the Jesuits, worked in a more strategic way. In July 1773, Pope Clement XIV signed the order, however, "Dominus ac Redemptor Noster" aimed at suppressing the Jesuits, and their churches and their possessions were seized by a number of simultaneous operations. In return, the Pope Clement and the State of the Church, were returned to Avignon and Benevento for "services rendered" to the Royal Houses.
The repression caught the General Ricci completely by surprise, but before he could react he was arrested on August 17 and imprisoned in Castel Sant'Angelo in Rome. In any case, September 22, 1774, Ricci managed to assassinate Pope Clement XIV, who died at the age of 68. Ricci was imprisoned and died November 24, 1775 , after 15 years in office as General.
The counter- JESUIT
The imprisonment and the death of Ricci and the Letter of suppression did not bring the end that we hoped for the Jesuits. The letter remained valid only in the countries where it was officially promulgated (from the local Sovereign).
Frederick of Prussia recognizing the value of the Jesuits as educators, refused to promulgate the Brief. Just as Catherine II of Russia forbade its enactment, for the same reasons. At first, some of the Jesuits turned into these countries in the priests of the parish and continued, as before, to teach in the colleges of the Jesuits.
Since in these two countries (Prussia and Russia) continued to be legally recognized as the Jesuits, the Fathers of White Russia convened a General Congregation - the first in White Russia. During this last elected as Vicar General, Father Stanislaus Czerniewicz 53 year old, at the head of the Jesuit Province and Rector of the College of Polotsk.
Stanislaus Czerniewicz died July 7, 1785, and the Fathers convened the Second Congregation of White Russia to elect a successor. He was elected Vicar General Father Gabriel Lenkiewicz on September 27.
Two years after his election, Gabriel Lenkiewicz SJ ( Society of Jesus, Society of Jesus - SJ) took the opportunity to unleash his revenge against one of the European Royal Houses that had contributed to the fall from grace of the Jesuit Order. King Louis XVI of France, by the provision of reform, had convoked the Assembly of Notables - it was a group of nobles, bourgeois and selected by members of the bureaucracy, in order to bypass the Parliament at that stage dominated by aristocratic families.
In order to improve the standard of living of the poorest inhabitants of France and remedy the growing famine, the King asked the Assembly 's approval of its plan aimed at taxing for the first time the noble families and the Catholic Church itself. The plan angered the Catholic bishops and the Jesuits were called by Russia in order to assist in the plan to subvert that King willing.
The Jesuits soon took advantage of the King's plan oriented to circumvent the Parliament as deeply corrupt, and gave way to the printing of brochures and material anti-monarchy whereby the King's activities were defined to be contrary to the interests of the people, because under the law of a third party (the Third) of the French Parliament would be elected by the people.
Again, using to their advantage the desire of the King to see a real change, the Jesuits promoted open clashes and a counter-movement, claiming it was the people want to change, and not the King to put an end to the chaos, in 1791, King Louis XVI promulgated a new constitution under which France would be transformed into a constitutional monarchy - providing for the first time political freedom and real democracy in this sense and anticipating all the other nations on the European continent.
In response, Pope Pius VI (1775-1799) ordered the Emperor ( the 'Holy Roman Empire' ) Leopold II of Austria to attack his brother-in-law. In 1792, the Jacobins, controlled by the Jesuits, the King imprisoned him in the course of the next two years, during the so-called "reign of terror" Jesuit, over 40,000 people were executed , mostly without even a trial.
The Revolution itself initially did not bring benefits to the cause of the Jesuits in view of their resettlement. Instead gave them new confidence than the actual possibilities to bring down even the most ancient monarchies, and these conditions also gave rise to the daring plan aimed to overthrow the Pope and to take possession of the treasures of the Catholic Church.
In one of the biggest red herrings and falsifications of history, the loyal Jesuit agent Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de La Fayette, known to most simply as "La Fayette", not only abandoned his devoted troops and renounced his influence to hide in 'anonymous region of Liège in Belgium , where he was apparently held "captive" for 5 years. Even La Fayette was commissioned by the Jesuits to take possession of huge gold reserves of France and having them come to America.
In New-York, the stolen French gold was deposited in the Bank of New York (founded in 1784) and in the newly formed Bank of The Manhattan Company ( now JP Morgan Chase Bank).
The agent Jesuit Antoine Christophe Saliceti had carefully prepared the career of Napoleon Bonaparte course mate for several years. In 1795, while he was on duty in Paris, Napoleon succeeded in crushing a revolt of monarchists and anti-revolutionaries and entered into the good graces of the new regime leader Paul François Jean Nicolas, Vicomte de Barras (Paul Barras ).
After the marriage of Napoleon to Josephine de Beauharnais, Saliceti made sure to Napoleon himself was given the command of the French Army of Italy in March 1796, and ordered him to invade Italy, mainly to capture the Pope in Rome.
At the same time, the Jesuits, using Switzerland, formed the private banks Darier Hentsch & Cie. and Lombard Odier Darier Hentsch, so that might guard all the gold, treasures and contracts seized during the campaign.
However, Pope Pius VI concluded its own peace treaty with Napoleon in Tolentino February 19, 1797. It required the organization by the Jesuit assassination of Brigadier General French Mathurin- Léonard Duphot in Rome, so that Napoleon finally complimented the task entrusted to him and directed to arrest the Pope Six weeks after the transfer of the Pope in poor condition typical of the citadel of Valence , the latter died August 29, 1799.
Back in Rome, the agents of the Superior General of the Jesuits Gabriel Lenkiewicz (SJ) took the vision of all the documents of the Vatican Treasury, with reference to the different locations of the treasures of gold and the Vatican, sending them to Switzerland and at the bank Darier Hentsch & Cie. in return, the bank continued for some time to finance Napoleon for its further campaigns of conquest.
In November of 1798, Gabriel Lenkiewicz S.J. died, February 1 Father Franz Xavier Kareu was elected Vicar General.