250 million years before the era of dinosaurs, creatures such as Dicynodonts and Gorgonopsians roamed the land, while the oceans too teemed with life.
Then, in the blink of a geological eye, everything changed. 95% of life was wiped off the face of Earth known as the Permian extinction.
That turbocharged global warming brought drought and a breakdown in the food cycle, with even the strongest animals eventually succumbing to the conditions.
230 million years ago, dinosaurs rose up as rulers of Earth, eventually dominating all other species and relegating mammals to the shadows.
But 65 million years ago their planet was rocked by yet another massive event when the mighty dinosaurs were wiped off the face of Earth. But without this devastating catastrophe, humans would not be here today.
The extinction of the dinosaurs ultimately led to the evolution of humans. Cutting-edge scientists, palaeontologists and geologists investigate what could be responsible, and chart the story behind the widely held theory that Earth was hit once again by a deadly asteroid.
Blue Line: Earth Average Temperature
Let’s look at the last 600 million years of global climate change:
⊠ it was generally been warmer than today by many degrees Celsius,
⊠ 22ºC average temperature had been the norm,
⊠ then there had been 4 Ice-Ages during this latest Holocene Epoch where average global temperature plummeted to 12ºC even 10ºC,
⊠ Today average global temperature is 14.5ºC with tiny 0.0044% CO2 recent increase (purple line bottom-right end), far below photosysthesis ideal condition of 7,000ppm. If living species with lung suffer, they should live indoor spaces with controlled atmosphere.
Graph above shows that there is no correlation whatsoever between carbon dioxide concentration and the temperature at the earth’s surface and atmosphere, except that CO2 increases (see CO2 cycles) hundreds, thousands, and millions of years AFTER it gets hot by volcanic explosions and asteroids, not by dinosaurs, not by humans as we wheren't there yet.
During the latter part of the Carboniferous, the Permian and the first half of the Triassic period, 250-320 million years ago, carbon dioxide concentration was half what it is today but the temperature was 10ºC higher than today. Oxygen (O2) in the atmosphere fluctuated from 15 to 35% during that period.
From the Cretaceous to the Eocene 35 to 100 million years ago, a high temperature went with declining carbon dioxide (CO2).
The theory that carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is related to the temperature of the earth’s surface is therefore wrong.
The growth of plants in the Carboniferous caused a reduction in atmospheric oxygen and carbon dioxide, forming the basis for large deposits of dead plants and other organisms. Plant debris became the basis for peat and coal, smaller organisms provided oil and gas, both after millions of years of applied heat and pressure from geological change; mountain building, erosion, deposition of sediments, volcanic eruptions, rises and fall of sea level and movement of continents. Marine organisms used carbon dioxide to build shells and coral polyps and these became the basis of limestone rocks.
The idea promulgated by the IPCC that the energy received from the sun is instantly “balanced” by an equal amount returned to space, implies a dead world, from the beginning with no place for the vital role of carbon dioxide in forming the present atmosphere or for the development or maintenance of living organisms, or their ability to store energy or release it.
Increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide caused by return to the atmosphere of some of the gas that was once there promotes the growth of forests, the yield of agricultural crops, fish, mollusks and coral polyps in the ocean.
Increase of Carbon Dioxide is thus wholly beneficial to “the environment”. There is no evidence that it causes harm.
Right after the year 2000, NASA and NOAA dramatically altered US climate history, making the past much colder and the present much warmer. This animation shows how NASA and NOAA cooled 1934 and warmed 1998, to make 1998 the hottest year in US history instead of 1934. This alteration turned 1930s-2000s into a warming trend. Whatever they do, the 1700s-2000s climate range remains the tiny warming of the -55million+2050s and beyond cooling trend.
Encircled below: +/-12,000 years average Interglacial Warm Holidays periods between the +/-90,000 years Long Ice-Age Glaciations of the last 420 thousand years Pleistocene Epoch.
We are in the Pleistocene Epoch Ice-Ages. That’s why Earth both poles are covered with ice. People don’t understand that we are in an Ice-Age now.
This period is the Interglacial Warm Holidays period within the 2 Pleistocene Ice-Ages, the Holocene Climatic Optimum that allowed humans to develop from 1.5-10 million to 7 billion people. And it's about to end to follow by another 90,000 years Long Ice-Age Glaciation with frequent abrupt warmings.
“Global Warming” demonization in today one of the coldest periods in geologic history is a sham . . . a sham perpetuated by a network of dirty government officials, greedy corporations, and bought-off “scientific” organizations.
Water vapor (H2O) and Carbon dioxide (C02) are vital to life on Earth. To allow human evolution to more advanced type of civilization, we need to use and reuse them more, not less in a warmer than today's one of coldest periods in geologic history.
So far, humans have been lucky not to have experienced catastrophes on a global scale, like those that have extinguished 99% of all other species. Humans have come to reside as the most powerful species on this planet, but it is easy to forget that the forces that wiped out many of our ancestors are still at work. In this video, Catastrophe maps out key events over the last 75,000 years. During that time humans were subjected to a super-volcano that nearly devastated whole regions of Earth. The ensuing ice age that covered Europe with ice sheets many kilometres thick is said to have thwarted the development of complex civilisation, and the cosmic catastrophe that followed is believed to have changed life forever for the early inhabitants of North America.
Within this +/-12,000 years Holocene Epoch, based on long-term climate average, there was 300 years warming from the Maunder Minimum that has ended around year 1998 to start this 30 years long-term cooling trend.
Many scientists assume this coming period as Grand Solar Minimum of quite #SolarCycle24 and #SolarCycle25. Some even predict the Earth Long-Term Climate as heading toward another Long Ice-Age Glaciation of the cold Pleistocene Epoch from #SolarCycle26, not toward an "Unprecedented Anthropogenic Global Warming".
The Earth climate (seawapa.org/climate) had descended into that beginning point as explained above, as well as the sun activity and other bigger masses are the main drivers of our planet, not tiny harmless CO2, not humans.
The temperature drop off had accelerated from 2016, 2017 with agricultural season length shortened and will bottom out by 2021. The temperature will rebound slightly through 2035 #SolarCycle25 maximum, then will drop again and may plunge Earth into Long Ice-Age Glaciation (seawapa.org/ia) from #SolarCycle26 (2050 onward). Dates are approximate as #VEI7 supervolcanic explosion or #Asteroid impact could change everything.
In the current study published in 3 peer-reviewed papers the researchers analysed a total background magnetic field from full disk magnetograms for three cycles of solar activity (21-23) by applying the so-called “principal component analysis”, which allows to reduce the data dimensionality and noise and to identify waves with the largest contribution to the observational data.
This method can be compared with the decomposition of white light on the rainbow prism detecting the waves of different frequencies.
As a result, the researchers developed a new method of analysis, which helped to uncover that the magnetic waves in the Sun are generated in pairs, with the main pair covering 40% of variance of the data (Zharkova et al, 2012, MNRAS). The principal component pair is responsible for the variations of a dipole field of the Sun, which is changing its polarity from pole to pole during 11-year solar activity.
The magnetic waves travel from the opposite hemisphere to the Northern Hemisphere (odd cycles) or to Southern Hemisphere (even cycles), with the phase shift between the waves increasing with a cycle number. The waves interacts with each other in the hemisphere where they have maximum (Northern for odd cycles and Southern for even ones). These two components are assumed to originate in two different layers in the solar interior (inner and outer) with close, but not equal, frequencies and a variable phase shift (Popova et al, 2013, AnnGeo).
The scientists managed to derive the analytical formula, describing the evolution of these two waves and calculated the summary curve which was linked to the variations of sunspot numbers, the original proxy of solar activity, if one used the modulus of the summary curve (Shepherd et al, 2014, ApJ). By using this formula the scientists made first the prediction of magnetic activity in the cycle 24, which gave 97% accuracy in comparison with the principal components derived from the observations.
Inspired by this success, the authors extended the prediction of these two magnetic waves to the next two cycle 25 and 26 and discovered that the waves become fully separated into the opposite hemispheres in cycle 26 and thus have little chance of interacting and producing sunspot numbers. This will lead to a sharp decline in solar activity in years 2030—2040 comparable with the conditions existed previously during the Maunder minimum in the XVII century when there were only about 50-70 sunspots observed instead of the usual 40-50 thousand expected.
The new reduction of the solar activity will lead to reduction of the solar irradiance by 3W/m2 according to Lean (1997). This resulted in significant cooling of Earth and very severe winters and cold summers. “Several studies have shown that the Maunder Minimum coincided with the coldest phase of global cooling, which was called “the Little Ice Age”. During this period there were very cold winters in Europe and North America. In the days of the Maunder minimum the water in the river Thames and the Danube River froze, the Moscow River was covered by ice every six months, snow lay on some plains year round and Greenland was covered by glaciers” – says Dr Helen Popova, who developed a unique physical-mathematical model of the evolution of the magnetic activity of the Sun and used it to gain the patterns of occurrence of global minima of solar activity and gave them a physical interpretation.
If the similar reduction will be observed during the upcoming Maunder minimum this can lead to the similar cooling of the Earth atmosphere. According to Dr Helen Popova, if the existing theories about the impact of solar activity on the climate are true, then this minimum will lead to a significant cooling, similar to the one occurred during the Maunder minimum.
However, only the time will show soon enough (within the next 5-15 years) if this will happen.
Dr. Helen Popova of the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics and of the Faculty of Physics of the Lomonosov Moscow State University. Image credit: Lomonosov Moscow State University.
“Given that our future minimum will last for at least three solar cycles, which is about 30 years, it is possible, that the lowering of the temperature will not be as deep as during the Maunder minimum. But we will have to examine it in detail. We keep in touch with climatologists from different countries. We plan to work in this direction”, Dr Helen Popova said.
The notion that solar activity affects the climate, appeared long ago. It is known, for example, that a change in the total quantity of the electromagnetic radiation by only 1% can result in a noticeable change in the temperature distribution and air flow all over the Earth. Ultraviolet rays cause photochemical effect, which leads to the formation of ozone at the altitude of 30-40 km. The flow of ultraviolet rays increases sharply during chromospheric flares in the Sun. Ozone, which absorbs the Sun’s rays well enough, is being heated and it affects the air currents in the lower layers of the atmosphere and, consequently, the weather. Powerful emission of corpuscles, which can reach the Earth’s surface, arise periodically during the high solar activity. They can move in complex trajectories, causing aurorae, geomagnetic storms and disturbances of radio communication.
By increasing the flow of particles in the lower atmospheric layers air flows of meridional direction enhance: warm currents from the south with even greater energy rush in the high latitudes and cold currents, carrying arctic air, penetrate deeper into the south. In addition, the solar activity affects the intensity of fluxes of galactic cosmic rays. The minimum activity streams become more intense, which also affects the chemical processes in the Earth’s atmosphere.
The study of deuterium in the Antarctic showed that there were five global warmings and four Ice Ages for the past 400 thousand years. The increase in the volcanic activity comes after the Ice Age and it leads to the greenhouse gas emissions. The magnetic field of the Sun grows, what means that the flux of cosmic rays decreases, increasing the number of clouds and leading to the warming again. Next comes the reverse process, where the magnetic field of the Sun decreases, the intensity of cosmic ray rises, reducing the clouds and making the atmosphere cool again. This process comes with some delay.
Dr Helen Popova responds cautiously, while speaking about the human influence on climate.
“There is no strong evidence, that global warming is caused by human activity. The study of deuterium in the Antarctic showed that there were five global warmings and four Ice Ages for the past 400 thousand years. People first appeared on the Earth about 60 thousand years ago. However, even if human activities influence the climate, we can say, that the Sun with the new minimum gives humanity more time or a second chance to reduce their industrial emissions and to prepare, when the Sun will return to normal activity”, Dr Helen Popova summarised.
John Casey Author of UPHEAVAL & ADAPT 2030 Discuss Catastrophic Earthquakes Striking USA and Mini Ice Age Preparation. During every grand solar minimum the USA is rocked by 7.0-8.2+ earthquakes as well massive eruptions and seismic events across the globe. Their conversation covers how to prepare for these events and what to expect in terms of infrastructure damage, how to keep your family and businesses safe, investment opportunities, global crop losses and intensification of the grand solar minimum with a timeline to intensification.
John Casey can be contacted through his website and UPHEAVAL & DARK WINTER can be ordered through the same website. http://www.veritence.net/
The next 7 years will be very hard for everyone. We will witness what the fall of civilization will look like, unless we succeed as longer cosmic cycles are to arrive at the present time for a grand solar minimum, governments of the world are preparing for the event and they are going to try to control the population during this event.
For the past 10,000 years, the Earth has been mostly warmer than the last 150 years.
Today's temperatures are not unusual. It is not warmer than usual. On the contrary, it's been cooler than usual when you look back 10,000 years during this current warm period between ice ages. There was a Little Ice Age a few hundred years ago that we were warming from. And there was a cooling period in the 1970's that we were warming from. This was also when climate scientists were declaring that an Ice Age was to occur within 10 years. The latest data shows, there has been no warming since 1998. It was even warmer in the 1930's and 50's. The Hockey Stick graph has been abandoned by the IPCC.
Solar changes cause most Earth and other Solar system planets climate change.
Solar cycles are 11, 80, 206, and 1000 years intervals affecting us all now.
The Sun causes previous short upward global warming.
Previous warming was normal, not unusual.
Short upward previous global warming had ended with cooler downtrend.
To be followed by ...
The Earth global temperature average will rebound slightly through 2035. More drought, flash flood, ice-sheets melting, solidification and H2O movements will occur as the temperature fluctuates. That is why there is less people in Canada than in the USA. This is why there is fewer people in Antarctica than in Brazil. After this +/- 12,000 short years of Interglacial Warm Holidays, Ice-Age will take over planet Earth Climate for the following +/- 90,000 years with possible abrupt warming causing "Big Flood".
In January 2006, Al Gore predicted that we had ten years left before the planet turned into a “total frying pan.” We made it.
In 2008, Al Gore predicted that there is a 75% chance that the entire north polar ice cap would be completely melted within 5-7 years. He at least hedged that prediction by giving himself “75%” certainty.
On May 13th 2014 France’s foreign minister said that we only have 500 days to stop “climate chaos.” The recent Paris climate summit met 565 days after his remark.
In 2009, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center head James Wassen warned that Obama only had four years left to save the earth.
On the first Earth Day its sponsor warned that “in 25 years, somewhere between 75 and 80 percent of all the species of living animals will be extinct.”
A study in the journal Nature Climate Change reviewed 117 climate predictions and found that 97.4% never materialized.
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